REPORT: Nuclear Threats and Countermeasures

New Report Explains Nuclear Threats and Countermeasures

A new report by the American Security Project uses compelling visuals and facts to depict modern nuclear security challenges to encourage debate among policy makers and the American public.

 WASHINGTON D.C., 7 November 2011 – Today, the American Security Project  (ASP), with support from the Consensus for American Security, released a new report entitled, “Nuclear Security Index: Assessing Modern Nuclear Threats and the Tools to Combat Them” (NSI). This unbiased, fact-based report describes the nuclear threats to the United States and the tools that the U.S. and its partners use to defend against such threats.

The spread of nuclear weapons continues to be an urgent national security concern for the United States. The analysis included within the NSI is intended to encourage productive, informed debate about nuclear security challenges while also encouraging broader citizen participation in that debate. The NSI was produced with the American public in mind and it distills this highly technical subject and the complex debate surrounding it.

BGen Steve Cheney, Chief Executive Officer of ASP, said: “At ASP, we are constantly exploring ways to make critical and often complex national security issues more comprehensible for the greater American public— whose tax dollars fund the national security enterprise. As our mission states: an honest public discussion of national security requires a better-informed citizenry. With the publication of the Nuclear Security Index, we demonstrate our commitment to doing just that.”

Dr. Janne Nolan, Director of Nuclear Security Programs at ASP, stated: “20 years after the end of the Cold War, and ten years after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the nuclear security debate has not fully adjusted to modern realities and threats. The United States has not yet fully articulated a strategy for dealing with Iran’s questionable nuclear activities, the threat of nuclear terrorism, or the utility of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century. The Nuclear Security Index provides an excellent primer on these vital issues and will equip readers to understand the latest headlines as well as longer-term nuclear trends.”

Eric Auner, Policy Analyst at ASP and co-author of the NSI, commented: “The Iranian nuclear program is in the news almost every day. It requires urgent, high-level American attention. Crafting a strategy to deal with the global spread of nuclear technologies requires an understanding of the history and evolution of nuclear proliferation as well as an appreciation of the many tools that the United States has at its disposal to contain and combat this challenge.

The NSI points to key facts about global nuclear threats:

1) The U.S. and its allies and partners still face a wide range of nuclear threats;

2) There are many different kinds of tools to address nuclear threats, such as: military strength, nuclear deterrence, international agreements and organizations, and technological investments like ballistic missile defense;

3) A nuclear weapon cannot be compared to an ordinary bomb since the use of a single nuclear weapon would cause mass devastation and have profound effects on global stability; and

4) To date, only a small number of nations pose a near-term, urgent nuclear proliferation risk. Preventing such threats from escalating in the future will depend on careful leadership and cooperation from all like-minded states working together to enforce common norms.

These facts are further described in the NSI. To learn more and view the illustrative charts, maps, and graphics, please click below

Link: http://americansecurityproject.org/NuclearSecurityIndex2011.pdf



Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Summary

The limited capacity and widespread corruption of all levels of Afghan governance are factors in

congressional debate over the effectiveness of U.S. policy in Afghanistan and in implementing a

transition to Afghan security leadership. That transition is to be completed by the end of 2014, a

timeframe agreed to by the United States, its international partners, and the Afghan government.

While establishing a formal, constitutional governing structure, Karzai has also built an informal

power structure around his closest allies (most of whom are ethnic Pashtuns), as well as other

ethnic and political faction leaders willing to work with him. Some of these faction leaders

oppose Karzai on the grounds that he is too willing to make concessions to insurgent leaders in

search of a settlement—a criticism that grew following the September 20 assassination of the

most senior Tajik leader, former President Burhanuddin Rabbani. Another informal source of

authority, President Karzai’s half-brother Ahmad Wali Karzai who essentially ran southern

Afghanistan on the president’s behalf, was assassinated on July 12, 2011. His death increased

doubts about stability as U.S. troops draw down…..

…………….

 



Measuring the Extent of CyberFraud: A Discussion Paper on Potential Methods and Data Sources

AUGUST 2011

RDIMS #465951

MEASURING

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ...................................................................................... 3

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................ 5

1.1 The Definition and Classification of Cybercrime.......................................................5

1.3 Defining ‘the Victims’ of Cyber-Fraud.......................................................................7

1.4 The Most Common Types of Cyber-Fraud...............................................................7

Phishing Scams..........................................................................................................8

Online Auction Fraud ..................................................................................................9

Phony Website Fraud .................................................................................................9

Online Dating Fraud......................................................................................................9

Nigerian/419 Fraud .....................................................................................................9

Securities and Investment Fraud ..............................................................................10

Identity-Related Fraud ..............................................................................................11

Credit Card Fraud.....................................................................................................11

Insider Fraud ............................................................................................................12

2.0 The Prevalence and Cost of Cyber-Fraud.................................................. 13

3.0 Cyber-Fraud, Organized Crime and the Online Underground Economy......... 19

4.0 Cyber-Fraud Legislation in Canada and Elsewhere .................................... 25

4.1 The Canadian Legal Framework............................................................................25

4.2 The Legal Framework in the United States ............................................................27

4.3 British and Australian Legal Frameworks...............................................................28

5.0 Jurisdictional Issues Related to the Investigation and Prosecution of Cyber-

Fraud ........................................................................................................ 28

6.0 Additional Issues for Law Enforcement and Prosecutors ............................ 31

7.0 Estimations of the Hidden Population of Cyber-Fraud Offenders ................. 33

8.0 Establishing the Characteristics of Cyber-Fraud Offenders, Investigation and

Networks ................................................................................................... 36

9.0 Methodology ......................................................................................... 37

9.1 Sample...........................................................................................................38

9.2 Results ...................................................................................................................38

9.2.1 Methods and Means of Commission................................................................38

9.2.2 Harm Caused to the Victim ..............................................................................40

9.2.3 Offender Characteristics ..................................................................................41

9.2.4 Network Structure and Function ......................................................................42

9.2.4 Enforcement Activities .....................................................................................45

9.2.5 Problems with Data and Reporting ................................................................47

9.2.6 Suggestions for Data Sources and Solutions to Current Issues ......................50

10.0 Conclusion and Recommendations ........................................................ 53

REFERENCES ............................................................................................ 57

 

http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/sp-ps/PS14-4-2011-eng.pdf

 









































































































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